Chandan Tree Farming (Cultivation) Process and Profit Guide

Chandan Tree Farming has gained huge popularity because of the high fragrance of Sandalwood or Chandan and its wood materials have been used for centuries. Chandan Trees are majorly known as Sandalwood or Srigandha and it is the most expensive tree plant. Sandalwood is an evergreen tree that is mostly used in commercial, therapeutic, cosmetic, and medicines. The maximum height of sandalwood ranges between 13 to 16 meters and its girth would be about 100 to 200 cm. These Sandalwood Trees are found in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Australia, Pakistan, Hawaii, Indonesia, and Pacific Islands.

Sandalwood Tree Family: Santalaceae
Sandalwood Tree Scientific Name: Santalum Album

Chandan Trees hold a major place in Indian tradition and it is used by Indian people from cradle to cremation. It is also used in the pharmaceutical, aromatherapy, cosmetics, perfumery, and soap industry. Because of this, the commercial value of Sandalwood trees or oil is extremely high in the Indian market. There are numerous varieties of sandalwood and these different varieties are available all through the world. There are two prominent varieties of Sandalwood that hold a majorly high commercial value in the market. The leaves of the Sandalwood Tree are also used in the form of animal fodder.

These are mainly:
  • Indian Sandalwood
  • Australian Sandalwood

After 30 years of cultivation, Sandalwood trees become ready for harvesting. If you are making use of the organic cultivation method then you can get the Sandalwood tree in 10 to 15 years. There are two colors of Sandalwood in India that are white, yellow, and red. The best part of this Chandan Tree Farming is that you can also grow these trees as an intercrop in Malabar Neem Plantation.


Details Required for Sandalwood Tree Farming

If you are a farmer or investor and making plans for the cultivation of sandalwood trees then you may have requirements of proper soil, land, climate, plant selection, irrigation, and fertilizers. You must make proper planning for the project, calculate the profit and expenses, and have to note how much investment is required for the cultivation before starting it.


What Type of Climate is Required in Sandalwood Farms?

Sandalwood trees can thrive in almost every type of soil, temperature, and climate. There is a requirement for a hot atmosphere around the Sandalwood Farms as these trees will thrive better in humid climatic conditions. There is also a requirement of a temperature between 12 degrees to 35 degrees celsius for the cultivation of sandalwood trees. This sandalwood tree will thrive best at 600 and 1050 meters altitudes.


Soil Requirements for Chandan Tree Farming

If you are planning for Chandan Tree Cultivation, then you might have a requirement of well-drained soils that possess a good organic object. The red sandy loam soils are appropriate for the sandalwood tree and you will obtain the high yield crop. There is also a must requirement of soil test for checking the nutrient requirements for the plantation of sandalwood. It is to check whether the soil has abundant nutrients for the plantation or not. The pH of the soil should be between 6.5 to 7.5 with a bit of alkaline for the Sandalwood tree cultivation. In addition to this, you are required to plow the field before going for plantation until you obtain stunning tilth and weed-free soil. Apart from this, you should prepare the soil in such a way that the water in the time of floods or heavy rains may come out very easily from the drain. The process of Sandalwood cultivation can be done by seeds and vegetatively with the help of tissue culture.


Common Pests and Diseases in Sandalwood Farms

Insect Pests in Sandalwood Farms
  • Defoliators
  • Hotea nigrorufaWalker
  • Nyctemera lacticinia(Cramer)
  • Calodia kirkaldyi Nielson
  • Cardiococcus bivalvata(Green)
  • Hyposidra talacaWalker
  • Purpuricenus sanguinolentus(Olivier)
  • Toxoptera aurantii(Boyer de Fonscolombe)
  • Tajuria cippus(Fabricius)
  • Trematodes monticollis(Gray)
  • Eumeta crameri(Westwood)
  • Trabala vishnou (Lefèbvre)
Diseases of Chandan Trees
  • Black Spot fungal
  • Phytoplasma
  • Pulvinaria psidii Mask
  • Coccid
  • Phellinus noxius

How to Plant Chandan Tree?

Sowing is mainly done by the seeds in Chandan Tree Farming. When these Chandan trees become 15 to 20 years old, then in the month of August to March, you can collect the seeds from Chandan. The seeds you have collected are required to be well-treated and dried in sunlight before they seminate on nursery beds. There are two types of seedbeds available in the nursery for the sowing of Chandan seeds.
● sunken
● Raised beds
A seedling will grow up to 30 to 35 cm on nursery beds after 7 to 8 months. They will also become ready for getting transferred to the main field. When you are preparing land or soil for sandalwood tree cultivation, you are also required to dig a pit of size 45*45*45 cm simultaneously for the plantation of sandalwood seedlings.
You are required to ensure before the plantation of seedlings that the water will not be stable in pits. If there is some water in the pits then you have to relinquish the pits below the sunlight for some days. In addition to this, you have to keep the distance of 10 feet between each plant. You will start to get flowers on your sandalwood trees after four years of planting.



Where would I Get Baby Sandalwood Plants?

If you are not desired to do Chandan Tree Farming from the seeds, then you may buy them from the market and plant them with an appropriate method of sandalwood plantation. But, you are required to take their proper care while purchasing from the market.

There is a wide range of govt. and private nurseries present in the market from where you can purchase the baby Chandan plants and can plant them in your field. But, it would be a smart decision to purchase them from a genuine source. You can also purchase the baby Chandan plant online.


How much would be the cost of a Sandalwood Baby Plant?

When you are going to plant sandalwood through sandalwood baby plants, you must have purchased them from a genuine and certified source. Generally, Chandan plants are the most valuable plants in India, but for commercial plantations, you are required to plant a wide range of plants on your farm.
Usually, the cost of a single baby plant would be up to Rs.500 to Rs. 1000 per plant. But, you are required to plant a large number of plants on your farm for commercial plantation. From a genuine source, you can buy a baby plant @ Rs. 100.


Irrigation for Sandalwood (Chandan) Tree Farming

You can make use of the drip irrigation method for your sandalwood tree cultivation if you have limited water. As there is a need for less water for sandalwood cultivation, you can apply drip irrigation in the interval of 2 to 3 weeks. Young plants of sandalwood need irrigation only in hot and summer seasons. These Chandan plants don't require irrigation in rainy conditions.


Fertilizers for the Sandalwood Farms

You may opt to make use of Bio-fertilizers, chemical fertilizers, and organic fertilizers in your Sandalwood Farms to obtain the high yield of a crop. You can also make use of any rotten FYM (farmyard manure).
● Cow Dung
● Garden Compost
● Vermin-Compost
● Manure made from green leaves


The bio-pesticides are manufactured by making use of the following materials and it is also used for the controlling of any pests and diseases of Chandan cultivation.
● Chitrakmool
● Neem (Seeds, Kernel, and leaves)
● Dhatura
● Urine of Cow


Harvesting Time of Chandan or Sandal Trees

Sandalwood trees thrive well and get matured at the age of 30 years from their plantation. So, by that time they become ready for harvesting. There are numerous tree-cutting instruments available in the market in the latest technology.

So, you can make use of any instrument for the harvesting of your sandalwood trees. The heartwood of Chandan trees is transferred into the mill and softwoods will be removed from them.

This hard sandalwood is transferred into powder by making use of some machine. This sandalwood powder will get soaked in water for 2 days after it is used for making oil and other cosmetic products.

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